This was the first look for me into edit mode.
I first started anew, deleted the light and cube, even though some light stayed. I then added in a cylinder. Went to ortho mode and switched to edit mode. I needed to switch to edit mode, because in object mode you can only edit the whole object and not individual parts. In edit mode you can edit each individual vertices and apply materials to each surface, vertices and edges colour.
When in edit mode I selected each vertex by right clicking on them with the correct selection tool of vertices select.
I selected all vertices with the A key and increased the Z axis scale. I then sub-dived the barrel with CTRL + R, press the 2 key once for the amount of Vertices I wanted to add and selected the area I wanted with left click. I then scaled this area slightly bigger.
I deselected the barrel and used the Box Select tool (B) and selected the vertices I wanted. This didn’t work completely, so I switched to wire frame mode to select all there and I also could select all the loops with Alt + R + Right click. Then I was shown how to extrude with the Extrude tool (E), but before that I scaled down the surface to add a wooden ring appearance to the top, extruded the top down and then mirrored the object, deleted the bottom half of the barrel and assigned the mirrored effect (Z axis only) through object mode. If I don’t assign it, it will continue to mirror the effect.
I placed another cylinder, edited it in edit mode to have a slight bigger width and much smaller height, I then moved this up to the top of the first ring of the barrel and duplicated and relocated it to the bottom ring. I then joined these together with CTRL + J.
After all the meshes were done, I added in colours and took a screenshot: